Archaeologies of Conflicting Ideologies: Frederick Douglass, Democracy, and Combating Racism

The following post comes from a paper I presented at the annual Society for Historical Archaeology conference held in Quebec City, Canada this January.  Continue below for the body of the presentation.

Frederick Douglass Statue. Talbot County Courthouse, Easton, Maryland. Photograph by the author.

Archaeologists working at Wye House in Talbot County, Maryland have taken advantage of the historical descriptions provided by 19th century writer, orator, and abolitionist Frederick Douglass, who was enslaved there briefly as a child and describes his experiences in all of his autobiographies.  These textual accounts allow the archaeologist to see the plantation landscape and enslaved African American culture through the eyes of one who was enslaved there himself.  Such a perspective is extremely rare in the historical record and have greatly aided archaeological investigations.  Not only have we turned to Douglass for help in locating and describing the structures we excavate on his former plantation, but we have also turned to his writings and his work to help us get inside American slavery, race and racism, colonialism, and ideology.

During the American Civil War, Douglass was a vocal supporter of the US Colored Troops, and actively worked to

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Intersections of Place, Landscape, and Spirit at Wye House

This is a shortened version of my paper for the 2014 Society for Historical Archaeology annual conference, delivered at the beginning of January. I contributed to the second part of an exciting session called The Intersecting Plantation Landscape. You will be able to find my full presentation, and those of the other archaeologists in the session at our website, created by Terry Brock.

West side of the Wye House garden (1904).

West side of the Wye House garden (1904).

The sandy loam of the tidal shorelines of Talbot County, Maryland made for rich planting soil. Edward Lloyd I came to Talbot County in the mid seventeenth-century, carrying the name of Wye with him as an immigrant from Wales. His slaves built the Wye House Plantation along the Wye River which gave the Lloyds access to the Chesapeake Bay and all of the international trading routes it offered to a tobacco merchant. Within this perspective of the landscape are his story and the stories of the generations of Edward Lloyds that followed him. There is the way he saw his land, the formal garden paths, the plants, his view of the nature that surrounded him, and the place that he had created for himself. But his story is far from the only story, and he was not the only one creating places or bringing aspects of a homeland to the plantation. There were hundreds of enslaved men, women, and children at Wye House and several other properties owned by the Lloyds throughout the county.

The most famous was Frederick Douglass the abolitionist, who was held in bondage at Wye House as a child in the early nineteenth century. After his escape, he gave voice to his experience of slavery and oppression in his speeches and autobiographies. These are helpful to an extent, but for those who could not escape or write or speak, we have to turn to the records kept by the Lloyds, the archaeology of the plantation, and archaeobotany to illuminate their lives and histories.

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Pardon the Interruption

The AiA Blog is back after a six-month struggle thanks to the work of the University of Maryland IT Department. We’ll be posting a back-log of students’ posts from the summer and working to get the blog up-to-date with everything we are doing now. It will take a little bit longer to get it back to looking like it did. The design changes are temporary until I can restore our custom theme.

All of us at Archaeology in Annapolis will be traveling to Quebec City this week for the 2014 annual Society for Historical Archaeology conference, so you can expect to see the research that we will be presenting there soon. Thank you for reading, and we apologize for our unintended absence!


Getting to Wye House

I’ve been working at Wye House for three years now.  One impression that myself and many of our students are left with is its isolation and remoteness.  In the field school van, it takes more than an hour and a half to get to Wye House.  We have to cross the bay, drive down seemingly endless shady country roads, and frequently get stuck in traffic.  Some days, it seems like Wye House is the farthest possible site at which we could be working.

As far away as Wye House might seem on hot summer days, it’s much more connected than one might think.  We’re so used to thinking about distance in terms of lines on a roadmap that we sometimes forget that there are other ways of moving through space and other ways of determining connectedness.







This is a detail from a photograph of Wye House from the early 1920s or 1930s.  If you look closely, you can see the plantation’s wharf as well as the hull of a ship.  In My Bondage and My Freedom, Frederick Douglass writes:

In the river, a short distance from the shore, lying quietly at anchor, with her small boat dancing at her stern, was a large sloop–the Sally Lloyd; called by that name in honor of a favorite daughter of the colonel. The sloop and the mill were wondrous things, full of thoughts and ideas. A child cannot well look at such objects without thinking.

Douglass continues:

“I had the strongest desire to see Baltimore. My cousin Tom, a boy two or three years older than I, had been there, and, though not fluent in speech (he stuttered immoderately), he had inspired me with that desire by his eloquent descriptions of the place. Tom was sometimes cabin-boy on board the sloop “Sally Lloyd” (which Capt. Thomas Auld commanded), and when he came home from Baltimore he was always a sort of hero amongst us, at least till his trip to Baltimore was forgotten. I could never tell him anything, or point out anything that struck me as beautiful or powerful, but that he had seen something in Baltimore far surpassing it. Even the “great house,” with all its pictures within and pillars without, he had the hardihood to say, “was nothing to Baltimore.” He bought a trumpet (worth sixpence) and brought it home; told what he had seen in the windows of the stores; that he had heard shooting-crackers, and seen soldiers; that he had seen a steamboat, and that they were ships in Baltimore that could carry four such sloops as the “Sally Lloyd.””

Is this ship the Sally Lloyd?  In his writings, Douglass makes it clear that this ship (and others like it) is the link between the plantation and the outside world.  Through this ship, a new avenue of transportation and connectedness opens.  While Wye House is seemingly inaccessible by road, it is but a short trip by water to the capital, Annapolis, or the shipping port, Baltimore.  Prior to the construction of the Interstate Highway System (1956), the Bay Bridge (1952), and the invention of the Model T (1908), archaeologists departing from the University of Maryland would almost certainly walk down the road to the port town of Bladensburg, board a ship, and sail down the Anacostia River to the Potomac, across the Chesapeake Bay, and onto the dock at Wye House.  The alternative would involve a LONG walk up and around the Chesapeake Bay.

Returning to the aerial photograph of Wye House suggests another way to get to Wye House: by air.  As remote as Wye House feels, we are frequently greeted by the sounds of powered flight.  Overhead, we’ve seen news helicopters, Coast Guard helicopters, private jets, small turboprop planes, home-made ultra-light aircraft.  We are also treated to daily flights of A-10 Thunderbolts, probably on training flights out of Andrews Air Force Base outside Washington, DC.  Nicknamed the Warthog, the A-10 was designed to engage enemy vehicles and tanks with depleted uranium armor-piercing shells.  It flies low, slow, and loud and their commanding presence demands that we look up from our units and realize that we’re still connected to the outside world, even here at Wye House on the Eastern Shore.


Wye House Plantation Environment: Culture and Perspective

View to the Wye River

View to the Wye River. Source: Katie Hutchinson

I tried my best to appreciate everything that the Wye House Plantation has to offer in the short amount of time I was given to do so. The perspective that I created moving through this space was fluid. The first impression was the beauty of the open spaces, trees and river. The second impression after reading Fredrick Douglass was that this space represented horrific deeds of the American past. And finally bringing the space to the present for archaeologists, this space does not accommodate our agenda to find African American culture.

I am always fascinated with being outdoors, especially when I have the honor of being immersed in the profound beauty of the space that is the Wye plantation. When I first came here, what I noticed and appreciated immediately was that it felt as though oxygen is widely available from the big beautiful trees. The trees are not invasive because there are wide-open spaces for one to embrace the vastness of the world. The scene is completed with the serene and calming river.

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Food for Thought

Subsistence will always be an integral part of the human condition. This underscores the importance of faunal, animal bone, remains in understanding the past. Historical archaeologists incorporate animal bones in order to understand what humans ate, their social identity, based on cuts of meats, religious affiliations, such as constraints on pig consumption, whether they domesticated animals, how they managed their resources, and so on and so forth.

Wye House bird bones

Wye House Unit 80 bird bones. Source: Ian Guillermo

After sifting screening through the dirt from countless of buckets ,your eye catches a glimpse of this yellowish, spongy artifact that when held is light. You then get excited because you found a bone!, seriously am I the only one? and for the prospect of analyzing what you found back in the lab. In Unit 80 Level F, I found several small bird vertebras while slowly screening the dirt, to the dismay of my fellow group members- I am looking at you Angie! So you may ask, what happens to the bone after it is bagged and checked in? The bones will go through a process of dry cleaning since at this point the bones are weathered and porous. Afterwards it will be placed in the drying rack along with other artifacts in this provenience and then subsequently re-bagged. It would then be sent to the lab!

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The Art of Mapping and Its Implications

Despite the recent increase of various types of new technology in the field of archaeology, including GIS, LiDAR, and more, archaeologists still like to stick to the old paper-and-pencil route for many tasks out in the field. With the discovery of a large collection of artifacts this past week, I had the opportunity to further develop my paper-and-pencil skills by mapping a unit, while also learning about the implications that such maps can have when it comes to the archaeological sites here at Wye House.

Exposed artifact arrangement under entryway to quarter

Units 79 and 80 facing what would have been the inside of the quarter. Source: Archaeology in Annapolis

As the June 20th post entitled, “Welcome to Wye,” states, Units 79 and 80 have been placed along the front door of a two-story brick quarter. For many days, these two units excavated through a variety of artifacts, including glass, ceramics, nails, and more brick and mortar than we knew what to do with. As interesting as these artifacts were, there was no discernible pattern that reflected a significance of the doorway equivalent to the spiritual bundles found in the greenhouse three summers ago. That all changed just a few days ago when both units seemed to simultaneously come down onto a potentially significant assortment of artifacts amidst even more brick and mortar. In Unit 79, we uncovered several flat pieces of iron, a large round piece of glass from the bottom of a jug, various pieces of glass bottles, an inkwell, and an unknown metal fixture and in Unit 80, we uncovered more pieces of iron and glass, as well as a large spoked wheel.

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AIA: An Experience

 It is good to learn about archaeology and its principles in a classroom. On the other hand, it is better to use the learning when out in an archaeological field. This was what I have done in the Archaeology in Annapolis field school. During the last five weeks of the session, I have learned new practices in addition to understanding how archaeologists analyze their findings. It was a steady process in which it takes time and yet it was worth it. Of course there were a few troubling moments along the way, but they did not hinder me from comprehending the study. I will use this experience when I go into a professional field in the future.

As I have mentioned previously, the field school is a series of steps that takes time and patience. It does not take one day but rather weeks to collect significant data. It includes profiling a unit, taking measurements, analyzing the stratigraphy, and examining the artifacts. In general, it is all about recording the processes as they happen each day. This was the first thing I have learned when we arrived in Annapolis in the first week and were given field journals. The journals helped us in keeping track with was what happening in the units or lab. In addition with teaching us how to dig a unit, the staff first explained how to create a Shovel Test Pit, or STP. From my understanding, this step is a prerequisite to see if there is an abundance of artifacts within a certain location of interest.

What pleased me about the field school is that there are the instructors who were willing to assist the students such as answering their questions or aiding them in the units. It is understandable that we must do the work by ourselves as archaeologists, but it never hurts when there is extra assistance in scraping a soil level or identifying an object.They taught us various terms, practices, and methods throughout the seminar. For example, Ben, one of the staff, explained about surface collecting, in which we look on the ground for objects that were brought up from natural occasions like storms. Overall, it is good that there are people who would use their time to help others.

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