Call for Farmer participants in organic grain transitions project

Researchers at the University of Maryland are looking for farmers interested in partnering with them on a project to help develop strategies for transitioning to organic grain production. Please see the attached flier for details. Contact Dr. Ray Weil for additional information (rweil@umd.edu).

Organic Transitions1page announcement Jan2019

2019 Dicamba Update

Erika Crowl, Agriculture Agent Associate
University of Maryland Extension, Baltimore County

Herbicide-damaged soybeans from dicamba drift
Example of damage when a label rate of 1pt/ac of the herbicide Clarity drifted on to non-tolerant soybeans. Image: Matt Morris, University of Maryland.

In October 2018, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved revised labels for Engenia (EPA Reg. No. 7969-345), FeXapan (EPA Reg. No. 352-913), and Xtendimax (EPA Reg. No. 524-617). While the EPA revised labels, they also announced the registration extension on dicamba for two years for “over-the-top” use on dicamba tolerant cotton and soybean plants.

Changes for 2019:

  • Only certified applicators may purchase and apply dicamba; no longer may those working under the supervision of a certified applicator may make applications.
  • For the 2019 growing season and each season thereafter, all applicators must complete the annual dicamba training provided by one of the registrants of a dicamba product approved for in-crop use with dicamba-tolerant crops.
  • Post- emergent dicamba treatments must be applied prior to 45 days after soybean planting, or R1 stage, whichever comes first.
  • Applications will be allowed only from 1 hour after sunrise to 2 hours before sunset.
  • In counties where endangered species may exist, the downwind buffer will remain at 110 feet. There will also be an additional 57-foot buffer required around the sides of the field. For a list of counties requiring additional protection measures check out the EPA endangered species website.

Records must be generated within 72 hours of application instead of 14 days. Must also include planting date on records. Record keeping forms for Engenia, FeXapan, and Xtendimax may be found online on the product website.

Please note this is not a comprehensive list of label changes for each dicamba product. I would encourage all applicators to read in detail all requirements on each specific product label. To find local dicamba trainings, please consult your local extension agent or Maryland residents may take the online training

Proper Stewardship by Growers is Essential to Ensuring Dicamba Tolerant Soybeans Continue to be Available

By Matt Morris, Agriculture Extension Educator
University of Maryland Extension, Frederick County

Dicamba tolerant soybeans, marketed under the trade name Roundup Ready 2 Xtend soybeans, are again available to  Maryland growers for the 2018 growing season. This line of soybeans will combine previous Roundup Ready technology with tolerance to the herbicide dicamba.

While this new dicamba tolerance may be useful in combating certain tough-to-control weeds, including marestail and palmer amaranth, use caution when applying dicamba. Applications of dicamba may cause problems due to the sensitivity of certain crops to the herbicide. Exposure can occur due to drift, volatility, or a non-target application.

Below are some recommendations to consider when using new dicamba-tolerant technologies.

  • Dicamba type:

The only dicamba products that will be approved for in-crop use with Xtend soybeans will be XtendiMax from Monsanto, FeXapan from Dupont, and Engenia from BASF. These are lower volatility formulations than other dicamba products and are designed for dicamba-tolerant soybeans. These products will be classified as restricted-use pesticides for 2018 and all users must take dicamba or synthetic auxin herbicide training prior to purchasing these products.

  • Know the location of sensitive crops:

Talk with your neighbors and know where crops such as tomatoes, grapes, alfalfa, and non-tolerant soybeans are located. Engenia includes woodlands and native vegetation as sensitive crops; any broadleaf cash crop is listed as a sensitive crop in the XtendiMax label. This information will help you decide whether to use dicamba near these crops, especially if a prevailing wind will cause drift in their direction.

In addition, you should maintain buffer zones of 110 feet (220 feet if a 22 oz/ac rate is exceeded), between dicamba application sites and sensitive crops. The two websites below contain a (incomplete) list of some sensitive crops in your area:

http://maryland.maps.arcgis.com/apps/OnePane/basicviewer/index.html?appid=a4e2153518d04317bbac79702aafcd53

www.driftwatch.org

  • Rates:

Engenia – Dicamba tolerant soybeans – maximum of 12.8 fl oz/application and 51.2 oz/season.

FeXapan and XtendiMax – Dicamba tolerant soybeans – maximum of 44 fl oz/pre-plant application, 22 fl oz/post-emergence application, and a maximum of 88 fl oz/season.

  • Nozzle selection:

Engenia – Only TTI11004 and TTI11005 are currently approved.

FeXapan and XtendiMax – Apply large droplets with specific nozzles. Do not use flat fan nozzles that produce driftable fines. Use TTI11004 or nozzles listed on the EPA-mandated product websites.

  • Tank mix partners and water conditioning:

Ammonium sulfate (AMS) CANNOT be mixed with the new dicamba formulations. AMS is commonly used as a water conditioning agent for glyphosate applications. Adding AMS will increase the volatility of dicamba. Also, certain spray adjuvants and herbicide tank mix partners are not compatible with the new dicamba formulations.

Lists of approved tank mix partners can be found at:

http://www.xtendimaxapplicationrequirements.com/Pages/default.aspx

http://agproducts.basf.us/campaigns/engenia/tankmixselector/

http://www.dupont.com/products-and-services/crop-protection/soybean-protection/articles/fexapan-tank-mix-partner.html

  • Recordkeeping:

For the 2018 season, recordkeeping will be mandatory when applying dicamba in-crop on soybeans. Specific recordkeeping requirements will vary between the three approved, in-crop dicamba products, so always consult the label. However, it is recommended you always record wind speed and direction, air temperature, humidity, location of the application, product(s) used, rate, crop being treated, pests being targeted, and total product amounts used, among other information. Proper recordkeeping can provide essential evidence in the event of herbicide damage to a non-target crop.

  • Wind speed, temperature, and temperature inversions:

The optimal wind speed for applying the new dicamba products is 3-5 mph. Applications are prohibited when wind speeds are above 10 mph.

As the temperature increases, so does the volatility of dicamba. Use caution when applying dicamba products in hot, humid weather.

Take caution when wind speeds are below 3 mph, since this could indicate the presence of a temperature inversion. This phenomenon occurs when the temperature, which normally decreases with height in a thin layer of the atmosphere, increases with height. Inversions are another cause of vapor drift. Other indicators of a temperature inversion include low-hanging smoke or dust, morning fog or frost, clear and still nights with little to no cloud cover, and ground temperatures cooler than early morning air temperatures.

  • Multiple applications and weed height:

Multiple herbicide applications with the same mode of action within a single season selects for herbicide resistance. Avoid using dicamba on tolerant soybeans more than once in a season. If possible, a pre-emergence herbicide should be applied before or at planting. It is also important to remember that weeds should be targeted at 4” of height or less for successful control.

  • Application suggestions:

Keep ground speeds below 15 mph and nozzle pressures as low as possible to maintain the desired application rate. Boom height should be no more than 24” above the crop or weed canopy. If a weed is 4” tall, boom height should not exceed 28.”

  • Most importantly:

ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW PESTICIDE PRODUCT LABELING. It is a violation of Federal and state law to use any pesticide product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling.

Approval of dicamba-tolerant soybeans by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will run until the end of 2018. At that point, they will consider whether to renew approval based on the number of problems that occur as a result of this new technology.

If you have questions regarding the use of dicamba tolerant soybean technology or dicamba, please contact Matt Morris @ 301-600-3578 / mjmorris@umd.edu or your local Extension office for more information.

Dicamba Changes for 2018:

  1. Classified as a restricted use pesticide that only certified pesticide applicators can purchase.
  2. Anyone applying these products MUST receive dicamba or auxin-specific training.
  3. Applications can ONLY be made between sunrise and sunset.
  4. Recordkeeping is mandatory. Refer to the individual labels for exact recordkeeping requirements.
  5. All applications cannot be done when wind speeds exceed 10 mph (down from 15 mph).
  6. Record of compliance with spray system cleanout is mandatory.
  7. Labels have enhanced language about susceptible crops. This includes non-dicamba-tolerant soybeans.
Herbicide-damaged soybeans from dicamba drift
Figure 1. Example of damage when a label rate of 1pt/ac of the herbicide Clarity drifted on to non-tolerant soybeans.

Making Timely Herbicide Applications to RR Soybeans in Fields with Palmer Amaranth

Ben Beale, Extension Educator, St. Mary’s County

Palmer amaranth infested soybean field in Southern Maryland.

The recent rains and numerous days of continuous wind has made it difficult to get herbicide applications made when needed.  Ideally, we really like to wait until planting to spray, or have good confidence that the herbicide application will occur right after spraying. Sometimes it doesn’t work out, and what we like and what we get are two different things.  With most weeds you will be ok, but Palmer and other resistant weeds can be another story. In our trials, residuals from pre-emergent herbicides provided 2-5 weeks of control for Palmer. That allows you to get in with an early post emergence product such as Reflex plus Glyphosate or Flexstar around 21 days after planting. This will help to keep the field clean until the beans canopy. If you take away a couple of those weeks, you can be in real trouble with weeds coming in before canopy closure. Continue reading Making Timely Herbicide Applications to RR Soybeans in Fields with Palmer Amaranth

Things to Consider When Using Dicamba Tolerant Soybeans

Matt Morris, Extension Educator, Frederick County (mjmorris@umd.edu)

Dicamba tolerant soybeans, marketed under the trade name Roundup Ready Xtend will be available to Maryland growers for the 2017 growing season. This line of soybeans will combine previous Roundup Ready technology with a tolerance to the herbicide dicamba. While this new dicamba tolerance may be useful in combatting certain tough-to-control weeds including marestail and palmer amaranth, caution needs to be taken when making applications of dicamba. Problems with dicamba applications may arise due to the sensitivity of certain crops to dicamba. Exposure can occur due to drift, volatility, or a non-target application. Below are some recommendations to consider when utilizing new dicamba tolerant technologies.

Know the location of sensitive crops:

Talk with your neighbors and know where crops such as tomatoes, grapes, alfalfa, and non-tolerant soybeans are located. This will aide in the decision to use dicamba near these crops, especially if a prevailing wind is headed their direction. In addition, buffer zones of 110’ (220’ if  a 22oz/ac rate is exceeded), will need to be maintained between dicamba application sites and sensitive crops. These two websites listed below contain a (incomplete) list of some sensitive crops in your area:(Link Here)

Dicamba type:

The only dicamba products that will be approved for in-crop use with Xtend soybeans will be XtendiMax from Monsanto, FeXapan from Dupont, and Engenia from BASF. These are lower volatility formulations than other dicamba products and are designed for the dicamba tolerant soybeans.

Rates:

Engenia – Dicamba tolerant soybeans – max of 12.8 fl oz/application and 51.2 oz/season.

FeXapan and XtendiMax – Dicamba tolerant soybeans – max of 44 fl oz/preplant application, 22 fl oz/postemergence application, and a max of 88 fl oz/season.

 Nozzle selection:

Engenia – Only TTI11004 and TTI11005 are currently approved.

FeXapan and XtendiMax – Apply large droplets with specific nozzles.  Do not use flat fan nozzles that product driftable fines.  Use TTI11004 or nozzles listed on the EPA-mandated product websites.

Spray adjuvants and water conditioning:

Ammonium sulfate (AMS) CANNOT be mixed with these new dicamba formulations. AMS is commonly used as a water conditioning agent for glyphosate applications. Adding AMS will increase volatility of the dicamba. Also, certain spray adjuvants and herbicide tank mix partners are not compatible with the new dicamba formulations. Always consult the label before mixing.

Recordkeeping:

Always keep records of where you’ve planted dicamba tolerant soybeans. This can help avoid costly misapplications to a crop that is not tolerant to dicamba. It will be extremely important to convey this information to custom application companies or employees on your farm.

Wind Speed, temperature, and temperature inversions:

When applying these new dicamba products the optimal wind speed is 3-5mph. Applications are prohibited when wind speeds are above 15mph; however, great caution and even stopping spraying when wind speeds are above 10mph would be ideal.

As temperature increases so does the volatility of dicamba. Caution should be used when applications are made in hot, humid weather.

Caution should also be taken when wind speeds are below 3mph as this could indicate the presence of a temperature inversion. Inversions are another cause of vapor drift. Other indicators of a temperature inversion include low hanging smoke or dust, morning fog or frost, clear and still nights with little to no cloud cover, and ground temperatures cooler than early morning air temperatures.

Multiple applications and weed height:

Multiple herbicide applications with the same mode of action within a single season selects for herbicide resistance. Avoid using dicamba on tolerant soybeans more than once in a season. If possible, a pre-emergence herbicide should be applied before or at planting. It is also important to remember that weeds should be targeted at 4” of height or less for successful control.

 Application Suggestions:

Keep ground speeds below 15 mph and nozzle pressures as low as possible to maintain the desired application rate. Boom height should be no more than 24” above the crop or weed canopy. If a weed is 4” tall, boom height should not exceed 28”.

Most importantly:

ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW PESTICIDE PRODUCT LABELING. It is a violation of Federal and state law to use any pesticide product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling.

The U.S. EPA will allow its approval of dicamba tolerant soybeans to run until the end of 2018. At that point they will consider whether or not to renew approval based on the amount of problems that arise as a result of this new technology. In order to have this technology in the future, proper stewardship by the grower is essential. If you have questions regarding the use of dicamba tolerant soybean technology or dicamba itself please contact Matt Morris @ 301-600-3578 / mjmorris@umd.edu or contact your local Extension office for more information.

 References and other Resources:

-University of Illinois Extension. The Bulletin. Dicamba and Soybean: What to Expect in 2017. http://bulletin.ipm.illinois.edu/?p=3765

-Purdue University Extension ID-453-W. 2,4-D- and Dicamba Tolerant Crops- Some Facts to Consider. https://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/id/id-453-w.pdf

-Reviewed by Ron Ritter, Professor Emeritus, University of Maryland